Summary: Two carbohydrate antigens were isolated from the cell surface of Peptostreptococcus anaerobius. One, extracted from purified cell walls with NaOH, contained glucose and phosphorus, with traces of galactosamine and glucosamine. Serological activity was detected by a “dot blot” procedure. The second antigen, extracted from cell membranes with phenol and purified by chromatography on Sepharose 6B and an immunoadsorbent column, contained glucose, glycerol phosphate, phosphorus and fatty acids. Antigenicity of this extract could also be demonstrated by an ELISA technique.