HmbB, a predominantly mitochondrial high-mobility group box (HMGB) protein, of Aspergillus nidulans affects diverse biological activities, such as sterigmatocystin production, the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA copy number, germination of asexual and sexual spores, and protection against oxidative stress agents. We hypothesized that the latter correlates with an unbalanced intracellular redox state, in which case, a not yet fully characterized physiological function could be attributed to this mitochondrial HMGB protein. Here, we studied the intracellular redox environment and oxidative stress tolerance in hmbB + and hmbBΔ strains under normal and oxidative stress conditions by measuring glutathione redox couple, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and ROS-protecting enzyme activities. Our results revealed that the intracellular redox environment is different in hmbBΔ conidia and mycelia from that of hmbB +, and shed light on the seemingly contradictory difference in the tolerance of hmbBΔ mycelia to diamide and menadione oxidative stressors.
Essential gene studies often reveal novel essential functions for genes with dispensable homologues in other species. This is the case with the widespread family of electron transfer flavoproteins (ETFs), which are required for the metabolism of specific substrates or for symbiotic nitrogen fixation in some bacteria. Despite these non-essential functions high-throughput screens have identified ETFs as putatively essential in several species. In this study, we constructed a conditional expression mutant of one of the ETFs in Burkholderia cenocepacia, and demonstrated that its expression is essential for growth on both complex media and a variety of single-carbon sources. We further demonstrated that the two subunits EtfA and EtfB interact with each other, and that cells depleted of ETF are non-viable and lack redox potential. These cells also transition from the short rods characteristic of Burkholderia cenocepacia to small spheres independently of MreB. The putative membrane partner ETF dehydrogenase also induced the same rod-to-sphere change. We propose that the ETF of Burkholderia cenocepacia is a novel antibacterial target.