Using a combined chromatography method, we simultaneously purified three protein fractions (II-2, II-3 and II-4) with 1,3-β-glucanase activity from extraction of pilei of Coprinopsis cinerea fruiting bodies. MALDI-TOF/TOF amino acid sequencing showed that these three fractions matched a putative exo-1,3-β-glucanase, a putative glucan 1,3-β-glucosidase and a putative glycosyl hydrolase family 16 protein annotated in the C. cinerea genome, respectively; however, they were characterized as a 1,3-β-glucosidase, an exo-1,3-β-glucanase and an endo-1,3-β-glucanase, respectively, by analysis of their substrate specificities and modes of action. This study explored how these three 1,3-β-glucoside hydrolases synergistically acted on laminarin: the endo-1,3-β-glucanase hydrolysed internal glycosidic bonds of laminarin to generate 1,3-β-oligosaccharides of various lengths, the exo-1,3-β-glucanase cleaved the longer-chain laminarioligosaccharides into short-chain disaccharides, laminaribiose and gentiobiose, and the 1,3-β-glucosidase further hydrolysed laminaribiose to glucose. The remaining gentiobiose must be hydrolysed by other 1,6-β-glucosidases. Therefore, the endo-1,3-β-glucanase, exo-1,3-β-glucanase and 1,3-β-glucosidase may act synergistically to completely degrade the 1,3-β-glucan backbone of the C. cinerea cell wall during fruiting body autolysis. These three 1,3-β-glucoside hydrolases share a similar optimum pH and optimum temperature, supporting the speculation that these enzymes work together under the same conditions to degrade 1,3-β-glucan in the C. cinerea cell wall during fruiting body autolysis.
Probiotics are bacteria used in the food industry due to their potential health benefits. In this study, the plasma membrane of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 was investigated using state-of-the-art high-resolution shotgun lipidomics. Comparisons of the lipidome of the plasma membrane were done after altering the fatty acid composition by supplementing L. acidophilus La-5 with saturated, mono-, di- and tri-unsaturated fatty acids during fermentation. The plasma membrane with the highest degree of saturation resulted in a lipid composition with the highest proportion of cardiolipin (CL) and lowest proportion of monolysocardiolipin (MLCL). No significant changes were found for other lipid classes. The bacteria grown with di- and tri-unsaturated fatty acids were expected to have more unsaturated plasma membranes than bacteria grown with mono-unsaturated fatty acids. This was also the case for MLCL, but the numbers of double bonds for CL were quite similar for these three samples. The results indicate that L. acidophilus La-5 possesses a molecular mechanism for remodelling and optimizing the fatty acid composition of CL and MLCL species and the molar ratio of CL and MLCL. This study contributes new knowledge on the previously uninvestigated lipidome of L. acidophilus La-5.
Here, the influence of metabolizable sugars on the susceptibility of Escherichia coli to β-lactam antibiotics was investigated. Notably, monitoring growth and survival of mono- and combination-treated planktonic cultures showed a 1000- to 10 000-fold higher antibacterial efficacy of carbenicillin and cefuroxime in the presence of certain sugars, whereas other metabolites had no effect on β-lactam sensitivity. This effect was unrelated to changes in growth rate. Light microscopy and flow cytometry profiling revealed that bacterial filaments, formed due to β-lactam-mediated inhibition of cell division, rapidly appeared upon β-lactam mono-treatment and remained stable for up to 18 h. The presence of metabolizable sugars in the medium did not change the rate of filamentation, but led to lysis of the filaments within a few hours. No lysis occurred in E. coli mutants unable to metabolize the sugars, thus establishing sugar metabolism as an important factor influencing the bactericidal outcome of β-lactam treatment. Interestingly, the effect of sugar on β-lactam susceptibility was suppressed in a strain unable to synthesize the nutrient stress alarmone (p)ppGpp. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time a specific and significant increase in β-lactam sensitivity due to sugar metabolism in planktonic, exponentially growing bacteria, unrelated to general nutrient availability or growth rate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the nutritional influences on antibiotic sensitivity is likely to reveal new proteins or pathways that can be targeted by novel compounds, adding to the list of pharmacodynamic adjuvants that increase the efficiency and lifespan of conventional antibiotics.
Fructophily has been described in yeasts as the ability to utilize fructose preferentially when fructose and glucose are available in the environment. In Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, fructophilic behaviour has been associated with the presence of a particular type of high-capacity and low-affinity fructose transporters designated Ffz. In this study, a PCR screening was performed in several yeasts using degenerate primers suitable to detect FFZ-like genes. In parallel, fructophilic character was evaluated in the same strains by comparing the relative consumption rate of fructose and glucose. For all the strains in which FFZ-like genes were detected, fructophilic behaviour was observed (25 strains). Results show that FFZ genes are ubiquitous in the Zygosaccharomyces and Starmerella clades. Strains of Lachancea fermentati, Torulaspora microellipsoides and Zygotorulaspora florentina were not fructophilic and did not harbour FFZ genes. It is of note that these new species were recently removed by taxonomists from the Zygosaccharomyces clade, supporting the view that the presence of FFZ-like genes is a main characteristic of Zygosaccharomyces. Among the strains tested, only Hanseniaspora guilliermondii NCYC2380 was an exception, having a preference for fructose in medium with high sugar concentrations, despite no FFZ-like genes being detected in the screening. Furthermore, this study supports the previous idea of the emergence of a new family of hexose transporters (Ffz facilitators) distinct from the Sugar Porter family.