Host cell adhesion assays that provide quantitative insight on the potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to inhibit adhesion of intestinal pathogens can be leveraged for the development of niche-specific anti-adhesion therapy. Herein, we report a dual-colour flow cytometry (FCM) analysis to assess the ability of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strains to impede adhesion of Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus onto HT-29 cells. FCM in conjunction with a hierarchical cluster analysis could discern the anti-adhesion potential of L. plantarum strains, wherein the efficacy of L. plantarum DF9 was on a par with the probiotic L. rhamnosus GG. Combination of FCM with principal component analysis illustrated the relative influence of LAB strains on adhesion parameters k d and e m of the pathogen and identified probiotic LAB suitable for anti-adhesion intervention. The analytical merit of the FCM analysis was captured in host cell adhesion assays that measured relative elimination of adhered LAB vis-à-vis pathogens, on exposure to either LAB bacteriocins or therapeutic antibiotics. It is envisaged that the dual-colour FCM-based adhesion assay described herein would enable a fundamental understanding of the host cell adhesion process and stimulate interest in probiotic LAB as safe anti-adhesion therapeutic agents against gastrointestinal pathogens.
The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has caused declines and extinctions in hundreds of amphibian species across the world. Virulence varies among and within lineages; the Global Panzootic Lineage (GPL) is the most pathogenic, although there is also variation in lethality among GPL isolates. Amphibians have a number of defences against pathogens, and skin products including the microbiota and host peptides have considerable influence over disease progression. Here we demonstrate that the collective skin products (the mucosome) of two amphibian species show significant variation in their ability to inhibit different globally distributed isolates of GPL. This may in part explain the variation in disease susceptibility of hosts to different strains of B. dendrobatidis. More work is required to identify particular traits associated with mucosomes that confer broad-spectrum inhibition across GPL in order to facilitate the development of prophylaxis and/or treatments for chytridiomycosis in situ.