Information for Authors


  1. General Information
  2. Editorial Processes
  3. How to prepare your paper
  4. Pre-submission checklists
  5. How to submit a standard research paper
  6. References
  7. Tables
  8. Figures
  9. Supplementary material
  10. How to submit a Revised manuscript
  11. Author forms
  12. Post-acceptance

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1. General Information

All papers must be submitted online using the Editorial Manager manuscript submission system. Please visit the Microbiology Society's publications list to choose the journal you wish to directly submit to. Submissions are not accepted in hard copy or by email, except Image of the Month submissions for JMM Case Reports which may be emailed to the Editorial Office at jmmcr@microbiologysociety.org.

All pre-submission or general editorial queries should be directed to each journal's Editorial Office contact at:

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2. Editorial processes

2.1 Editorial quality check

Upon submission, papers are checked by a member of the Editorial Office to ensure language quality, and that they are compliant with the pre-submission checklists as well as the requirements of the Society's Information for Authors. If any formatting problems are noticed by editorial staff, papers will be returned to the submitting author to amend before it can be assigned to an Editor.

2.2 Peer Review

Once a paper has been assigned to an appropriate Editor, the Editor is then responsible for making the decision on the paper's suitability for the journal, based on the journal scope. Editors are entitled to pre-screen reject submissions at this stage based on the nature of the study, quantity and quality of data, general conclusions, standard of presentation, language quality and if the paper falls outside of the journal scope.

Papers that pass the pre-screening stage will be sent to typically two independent reviewers. Reviewers will review the paper for originality and significance of the work described, and judge its acceptability for publication. The reviewers may also make critical comments and, where necessary, suggest improvements or additional experiments that could be done in support of the findings.

If the Editor is facing difficulty in obtaining reviewers, then he/she may also act as a reviewer or seek comments from another Editor. Authors may suggest at least three reviewers upon submitting their paper, ensuring that an institutional email address is provided. The use of reviewers suggested by the authors is at the discretion of the Editor after checks have been made to validate the suggested reviewers' details and authenticity.

Note that Microbial Genomics has a double-blind peer review policy, ensuring that the name(s), institution(s) and submitting country of author(s) are hidden from peer reviewers and vice versa. Authors are required to remove all author names and institutions from their paper. This information will be requested through our submission system instead.

2.3 Decision

After reviewer recommendations have been obtained, it is the Editor who makes the final decision as to the acceptability of the paper, based on the reviews and their own assessment of the manuscript.

There are three possible decision types: accept, revise (major or minor) and reject. Revise decisions imply that the paper requires modifications that could be carried out within a specified time frame.

Papers are reviewed as quickly as possible, and authors should usually expect to receive a first decision within 4-6 weeks.

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3. How to prepare your paper

3.1 Preparing files for submission

Papers can be submitted initially either as a single PDF file or as separate Word file with accompanying figure files, which will be compiled into a single PDF by the submission system. However, authors are advised, where possible, to upload files individually to ensure Editors and Reviewers can access the high resolution figure files.

Supplementary material should be submitted as a combined PDF separate file, and this will be incorporated into the system generated PDF.

For information on submitting a revised manuscript, please click here.

3.1.1 Submission as a single PDF

The submitted PDF should preferably not be much larger than 1 MB.

3.1.2 Submission as separate Word or and figure files

Most standard word-processor files (including .docx files produced in Word 2007 or 2010) will convert successfully to PDF. Times, Times New Roman, Courier, Helvetica and Arial, and the Symbol font for special characters, are the recommended fonts. Other fonts are not guaranteed to convert successfully to PDF. Tables for the main paper must be prepared as part of the word-processor file; they must not be supplied as images or Excel files. (Excel files are, however, acceptable for supplementary data). Word-processor files including inserted image files will normally be converted successfully to PDF by the system, but please note that files using OLE (Object Linking and Embedding) technology to display information or embedded files are not supported. If the conversion is not satisfactory, either convert the file to PDF yourself, and submit that, or submit the image files separately.

The file types that are supported for submission as separate figure files for conversion to PDF are PDF, GIF, TIFF, EPS, JPEG and PPT. A resolution of 300 d.p.i. at a reasonable size of reproduction is recommended; in other words, an image intended to fit in a single column of the journal should be around 1000 pixels wide and an image intended to fit across two columns should be around 2000 pixels wide. The following file types are not supported at the initial submission stage as they cannot be converted to PDF by the system: bitmap (.bmp), PICT (.pict), Excel (.xls), Photoshop (.psd), Canvas (.cnv), CorelDRAW (.cdr) and locked or encrypted PDFs. Image files will be converted to PDF and added to the end of the paper PDF produced by the system. If any of the image files are very large, it is advisable to reduce their size before submission if possible.

3.1.3 Cover letter

Journal of Medical Microbiology and International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM) both require cover letters. For all other journals it is preferable but not mandatory. Please use the following as an indication as to what you should include:

  1. What is the current knowledge of the subject?
  2. What are the new findings being reported here?
  3. What impact will your findings have on scientific/clinical practice or policy in the foreseeable future

For further information for the IJSEM cover letter requirements, please see the IJSEM pre-submission checklist.

3.2 Data depositories

For papers containing new sequence data, the sequence(s) will need to be available through a database upon publication. Authors must include on the title page, the footnote 'The GenBank/ EMBL/ DDBJ/ PIR] accession number for the XXXXXX sequence of XXXXX is XX00000. If the sequence(s) is not yet available, the database flat file (GenBank *.gbk; or, EMBL *.embl) or the NCBI Sequin file (*.sqn) should be made available for review. These files will not be published, but they are essential for reviewing the paper.

All journals welcome the deposition of supporting data.

Microbial Genomics has a mandatory open data policy. Authors are required to provide access to all supporting data, which have either led to the conclusions drawn in their paper, or to allow the procedure described in the paper to be repeated.

3.3 Pre-submission language editing

Prior to submitting your paper, you may wish to have it edited for correct use of English, particularly if English is not your first language. This step is not compulsory but it may assist the editorial staff, Editors and reviewers to fully understand the content of your paper. However, language editing does not guarantee that your paper will be sent out for peer review or accepted for publication.

A large number of language-editing services are available. Whilst you may use any professional scientific editing service of your choice, the Microbiology Society has partnered with Editage to provide publication-focused editing services to Society authors at a 15% discount. If the editorial team finds any language issues in text that Editage has edited, then Editage will re-edit the text for free. To take advantage of this offer click here. If you’re an existing Editage customer, you may get the discount by using the code SGM4614680 while making a submission.

3.1.4 Nomenclature, style and units

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4. Pre-submission checklists

The below information is intended to aid authors prior to submitting their paper to the Editorial Manager submission system, in order to avoid delays upon submission and ensure that the paper can be assigned to an Editor as quickly as possible.

Please find below journal pre-submission checklists:

For all journals, authors must also include in their paper:

  1. Permission for reuse of published content not published by the authors, and also any citations of personal communications or unpublished results; this should be confirmed in a cover letter
  2. A title page
  3. Ensure that citations of references in the text and references list conform to journal style, e.g. Harvard reference style
  4. Use continuous line numbering throughout the paper in order to facilitate online reviewing.

Via the Editorial Manager submission system, authors must:

  1. Agree to the submission and agree that the corresponding author may act on their behalf throughout the review and publication process. Authors are asked to confirm their co-authorship once the paper has been submitted to the relevant Editorial Manager site
  2. Recommend one Editor from the Editorial Board who would be suitable to act as Handling Editor.
  3. Suggest at least three potential reviewers (with institutional email addresses only) to peer review their paper.
  4. Indicate the word count of the main text (including in-text citations and any appendices, but not including the title page, figure and table legends, acknowledgements, table bodies and footnotes, or reference list).
  5. Upload any supplementary material associated with the paper as a supplementary file(s) and refer to the supplementary material within their paper. Please note for Microbial Genomics, it is preferred that supplementary files are deposited to external repositories, unless they are text-only files. Please review the journal's open data policy for further information.
  6. Upload any figures associated with the paper as figure files and refer to the figures within their paper
  7. Upload any cited papers that have been accepted for publication but are not yet published as a supplementary file(s)
  8. Upload a cover letter if requested by the journal (add in brackets what journals these are to make it easier for authors)
  9. Specify, if any, the funding received for the paper

5. How to submit a standard research paper

For guidance on style and layout of all other article types, please refer to the About page on individual journal sites.

For guidance on style and layout of articles submitted to Microbial Genomics, please refer to the relevant submission templates on the journal's submission requirements page.

For guidance on style and layout of articles submitted to JMM Case Reports, please refer to the relevant submission templates.

5.1 Title page (All papers)

5.1.1 Title

  • The title of the paper; this should provide a concise statement of the contents of the paper. A good title is very important and it will attract readers and facilitate retrieval by online searches, thereby helping to maximize citations. The title should include topical keywords and allude to the interesting conclusions of the paper. A title that emphasizes the main conclusions, or poses a question, has more impact than one that just describes the nature of the study.

5.1.2 Running title

  • A short 'running title', of not more than 55 characters (including spaces), for use as a headline.

5.1.3 Authors and affiliations

  • Author names should be given in upper- and lower-case, not in all capitals, to avoid ambiguities such as 'van' and 'Van'. The author for correspondence must be clearly indicated. It is permissible to include the names of more than one author as corresponding author, but a single author must act as the point of communication during the peer review process.
  • The name and address of the laboratory or laboratories where the work was done, and present addresses of authors who have since moved.
  • Author names and institutions should not be included in manuscripts submitted to Microbial Genomics, as it has a double-blind peer review policy. This information will be requested through our submission system instead.

5.1.4 Corresponding author details

  • An email address and telephone number for the corresponding author.
  • Corresponding author information should not be included in manuscripts submitted to Microbial Genomics, as it has a double-blind peer review policy. This information will be requested through our submission system instead.

5.1.5 Keywords

  • Select keywords that will make your manuscript easily searchable

5.1.6 Subject category

5.1.7 Word count

  • Word count of the abstract, and also main text excluding table and figure legends, references

5.1.8 Depositories (where applicable)

  • When reporting new sequence data, the accession number must be given, e.g. 'The GenBank[/EMBL/DDBJ] accession number for the [16S rRNA gene/gyrA, etc.] sequence of XXXXX is XX00000'.

5.1.9 Abbreviations (where applicable)

  • A footnote defining any non-standard abbreviations. Guidance on abbreviations not requiring definition can be found here.

5.2 Abstract

This section is likely to be read by more people than the full paper, and many abstracting services use authors' summaries without modification. It is therefore important that this section is clear and comprehensible in its own right. The abstract should, if possible, introduce the subject in the first sentence and present the main conclusion in the last sentence: References should not be cited, and any non-standard abbreviations used must be defined.

5.3 Introduction

This should state the objectives of the work, but should not contain a detailed summary of the results. Authors should not assume that all readers will know why an area is worth studying; they should briefly make this clear. Previous relevant work should be sufficiently cited but this should not constitute a full review.

5.4 Methods

Sufficient detail should be provided to allow the work to be repeated. The suppliers of chemicals and equipment should be indicated if this may affect the results. If the name of suppliers or equipment changes between your work and submission, please ensure this is clearly indicated. Suppliers' addresses should not be given unless this is considered essential for a particular reason.

5.5 Results

There should be sufficient subheadings to make clear how the work was organized, what the key questions being addressed were, how one experiment led to another, and perhaps what conclusions were reached. A reader should gain a clear picture of the work from the subheadings.

Reproducibility of results should be indicated. It should be stated how many times an experiment was repeated and whether means or representative results are shown. Variability should be indicated statistically wherever possible; when error terms are given, the measure of dispersion and the number of observations should be stated. Statistical techniques used must be specified, and where necessary they should be described fully or a reference given. If results are expressed as percentages, the absolute value corresponding to 100% should be stated.

5.6 Discussion

This should not recapitulate the results, and should not be too long. Excessive discussion of few facts often gives an impression of poor science. Subheadings should be used where appropriate, to highlight the points under discussion. It may be helpful to list the main conclusions at the end. A combined Results and Discussion section is encouraged where appropriate.

5.7 Acknowledgements

An Acknowledgements section is not compulsory but may be included. If required, please state the names of funding bodies and grant numbers in this section. Authors may also wish to acknowledge individuals who have contributed materials, expertise or time to the study who are not named as authors. Please do not refer to the Editor who handled your submission in this section.

5.8 Abbreviations

Please include any non-standard abbreviations referred to within your paper. A list of standard abbreviations can be found here.

6. References

References in the text should be cited using the Harvard referencing system (known as the name, date system).

6.1 In text examples:

For two authors, Smith & Jones (1996) or (Smith & Jones, 1996); three or more authors, Smith et al. (1996) or (Smith et al., 1996). References to papers by the same author(s) in the same year should be distinguished in the text and the reference list by the letters a, b, etc. (e.g. 1996a or 1996a, b).

6.2 Bibliography

For references with ten or fewer authors, give the names of all authors in the form "Surname, Initials". For references with more than ten authors, list the first nine followed by "& other authors".

6.2.1 Sample journal:

Cerdà-Cuéllar, M., Rosselló-Mora, R. A., Lalucat, J., Jofre, J. & Blanch, A. (1997). Vibrio scophthalmi sp. nov., a new species from turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Int J Syst Bacteriol 47, 58-61. Pasta, F. & Sicard, M. A. (1996). Exclusion of long heterologous insertions and deletions from the pairing synapsis in pneumococcal transformation. Microbiology 142, 695-705.

6.2.2 Sample journal reference for more than ten authors:

Tomb, J.-F., White, O., Kerlavage, A. R., Clayton, R. A., Sutton, G. G., Fleischmann, R. D., Ketchum, K. A., Klenk, H.-P., Gill, S. & other authors (1997). The complete genome sequence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Nature 388, 539-547.

6.2.3 Sample reference to a whole book:

Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E. F. & Maniatis, T. (1989). Molecular Cloning: a Laboratory Manual, 2nd edn. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.

6.2.4 Sample reference to a book chapter or section:

Romano, A. H. & Saier, M. H., Jr (1992). Evolution of the bacterial phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system. I. Physiological and organismic considerations. In The Evolution of Metabolic Function, pp. 171-204. Edited by R. P. Mortlock. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

6.2.5 References to websites

It is not practical to provide a generic example of a reference to a website. Essential items that must be provided are:

  • an author(s) (which may be a company name or organization);
  • a year of 'publication' (which may be the year that the site was last updated);
  • the URL (web address) of the page;
  • a page title (which will hopefully allow the page to be found using a search engine if the URL subsequently changes)

For a website that is frequently updated, it may be useful to provide the date that the site was accessed, particularly if specific information is quoted that may have changed when the paper is read.

Authors who use EndNote or Reference Manager should download the style from this website.

6.3 Bibliography style points:

  • References in the list must be given in alphabetical order, except for papers with three or more authors, which should be listed in chronological order after any other papers by the first author.
  • References must include the title of the paper as well as both initial and final page numbers.
  • Titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the system used by MEDLINE; no stops should be used after abbreviated words.
  • References to books should include year of publication, title (in full), edition, editor(s) (if any), town of publication and publisher, in that order. When the reference is to a particular part of a book, the inclusive page numbers of the chapter or section and, if appropriate, chapter title must be given.
  • Only papers accepted for publication but not yet published may be cited as 'in press' in the reference list and the reference must include the name of the journal. Relevant papers cited as 'in press' should be included as supplementary files with the online submission. References to papers not yet accepted should be cited in the text as unpublished results, giving the surname(s) and initials of all the author(s). Such papers should not appear in the list of references.
  • Permission must be obtained for any personal communications or citations of other workers' unpublished results.

7. Tables

These should be broadly comprehensible without reference to the text, but it is not necessary to repeat detailed descriptions of methods, etc. The symbols [markup] * † ‡ § || # should be used for footnotes, rather than superscript letters or numbers. When results are expressed as percentages, the absolute value(s) corresponding to 100% must be stated. Statements of reproducibility should be included (see above). Tables should not be used to present results that can be described by a brief statement in the text.

8. Figures

8.1 Permissions

If using figures or tables that have been previously published elsewhere, it is the responsibility of the authors to obtain permission from the original copyright holder prior to submission.

8.2 Colour figures

For Microbiology, Journal of General Virology, Journal of Medical Microbiology, and International Journal of Systematics and Evolutionary Microbiology, figures are published in colour free of charge in print if the use of colour is judged to be necessary for scientific reasons. There are no charges for supplementary material.

There are no colour charges for publishing in JMM Case Reports and Microbial Genomics as they are online-only journals.

8.3 Format

Figures should not be used to present results that can be described by a brief statement in the text. The points outlined above for tables regarding comprehensibility, relative values and reproducibility also apply to figures and their legends. The inclusion of large amounts of tabular data in figures is discouraged and authors may be asked to move such data to the text or a separate table. Authors should be aware that after publication, tabulated data within figures are not accessible via online text searching. Where possible, please also supply line drawings, bar diagrams and sequence data in the original file format in which they were generated and/or as EPS (Encapsulated PostScript), PowerPoint or CorelDraw files. Do not supply as PostScript files as these cannot be used.

Figures must be referred to in the text as Fig. 1(a) not Fig. 1A or Figure 1(A) or as (Fig. 1a) not (Figure 1A). Multipart figures should be labelled (a), (b), etc., not (A), (B), etc.

All figure files should not include a figure legend. The figure legends should be included in the Word document of the main text file.

8.3.1 Line drawings.

These should be of a quality suitable for direct reproduction. The maximum printed size, including lettering and legends, is 176 x 235 mm. Line thicknesses and symbol sizes should be sufficient to allow for reduction. The preferred symbols for graphs are filled and open circles, squares, triangles or diamonds. Where possible, the same symbol should be used for the same quantity in different figures.

8.3.2 Bar diagrams.

Simple bar diagrams reporting only a few values are usually unnecessary; the data can normally be given in a few lines of text. It is editorial policy not to publish bar diagrams with 'three-dimensional' bars unless there is a specific justification for their use.

8.3.3 Sequence data.

Figures showing full gene sequences are not published, but selected sequence data, with appropriate annotation, may be published where there is justification. The layout of sequence figures should be designed to fit either the full width of the page (176 mm) or a single column (84 mm). For adequate legibility, the height of the characters should be not less than 1.5-2 mm (or 6-8 point). For printing at full page width with this size of type, a layout with 80-100 nucleotides per line is appropriate (or 60-70 if there are spaces between the codons). For a single-column layout, 50-60 nucleotides per line is about right. The spacing between the lines of sequence should be as close as is consistent with clarity. Note that sequence data must be submitted to GenBank, EMBL or DDBJ.

The Microbiology Society does not publish figures whose principal function is to present primary sequence data, since the data can be accessed through the databases. To merit publication, sequence figures must be justified by the additional annotation they present; they should normally be limited to regions of particular interest. Limited sequence alignments of nucleic acids and proteins are acceptable provided they make a significant point. See above for guidance on presentation of sequence figures. Sequence data that are not suitable for print publication can, where appropriate, be published as online-only supplementary data.

8.3.4 Photographs (halftones).

Authors are advised to supply halftones intended for publication as TIFF or EPS files. The resolution should be at least 300 d.p.i. at final size (approx. 1000 pixels wide for a single-column figure; approx. 2000 pixels wide for a double-column figure). For photomicrographs, the scale should be shown by a scale bar.

8.3.5 Matrices and trees.

Similarity or distance matrices should not be presented unless specific features of the entire table are discussed. However, representative similarity values should be presented in the text. In taxonomic papers, trees should only be included for showing the importance of a phylogenetic analysis to a taxonomic description; the size of trees should be reduced - only nearest neighbours should be included, but the authors should, in the legend or Methods, list the other taxa (including strain and sequence accession numbers) used to generate the tree. Strain names should be those provided by the original depositor of the sequence.

Trees must include the names of organisms, their strain name or number (as stated by the depositor of the sequence, with type strains indicated where appropriate by a superscript capital T) and sequence accession number (space permitting). The size and style of font and width of lines should be such that the figure can be reduced as much as possible, in order make economical use of space in the journal. It is important to ensure the accuracy of names (check them in the List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature when making the final revision of the paper) and accession numbers in trees, as correction is time-consuming and expensive and may lead to the introduction of further errors.

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9. Supplementary Material

9.1 Microbial Genomics

Microbial Genomics has a mandatory open data policy which requires authors to submit supporting data, protocols, and/or bioinformatics programmes and software to relevant depositories.

Authors are encouraged to submit supplementary data such as large datasets, sequence alignments, 3D structures or movie files, to relevant subject-specific or general depositories. Text based supplementary material more suited to PDF publication, may be submitted with your paper. This will be published alongside the main paper exactly as supplied by the author.

9.2 All journals

All of our journals welcome deposition of supporting data. Material associated with a paper but not suitable for publication as part of the manuscript (e.g. large datasets, sequence alignments, 3D structures or movie files) can be included as online-only supplementary data. Data that are essential for interpretation of the results of the main paper should be included in the main paper. All supplementary data files will be reviewed along with the main paper; these will not be published unless they significantly enhance the paper. The Editors may suggest that figures or tables included within a paper should be converted into supplementary data.

Supplementary data files must not include methods for results that are included in the main paper, nor should they introduce different results or new discussion points.

All supplementary material is made freely available upon publication of the final version of the paper.

9.3 Submission

  • Supplementary data should be uploaded at the time of submission; please upload as file type Supplementary Material on the Editorial Manager submission system
  • Supply all supplementary material in the file formats given below.
  • Very large files or those requiring specialist software are not suitable as they will be difficult for the reader to download or view.

9.4 Presentation

  • Supplementary figures and tables should be named Fig. S1, Table S1, etc., and must be cited accordingly in the main paper. Figure and table legends should also be present in the main paper.
  • Provide a heading and, if appropriate, a short text description with each supplementary data item.

9.5 File types

  • Material should be submitted in PDF format; Please note that .doc(x) or .ppt(x) files are not suitable.
  • Multiple figures, tables or text items should be supplied as a single PDF.
  • Large datasets can be supplied in Excel format if you wish readers to be able to manipulate the data. If not, please convert to PDF.
  • Audio, video and animations can be supplied as .mov, .avi or .mpeg files.

9.6 Processing of supplementary files

  • Supplementary data files will be uploaded alongside the main paper exactly as supplied by the author. They do not undergo typesetting or copyediting. It is the authors' responsibility to ensure that all files are presented clearly.

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10. How to submit a revised manuscript

Revised papers should be submitted by the date indicated in the decision letter. If more time is required, the author should contact the Editorial Office or Editor to discuss a new deadline. If the revision is delayed by the author without prior agreement, the revised manuscript may be treated as a resubmission.

10.1 Revision checklist

As well as following the standard pre-submission checklist, authors are also asked to include the below when submitting a revised manuscript:

10.1.1 Rebuttal letter

  • If the paper was peer reviewed, authors must provide a detailed rebuttal letter, detailing their response to each point raised by the reviewers.

10.1.2 Main text file

  • Please upload a Word document, containing references, table and figure legends, and tables. Please do not include any highlighted text. Microsoft Word files are preferred; .docx files produced in Word 2007 or 2010 can be used as source files. TeX and LaTeX formats can not be used.
  • Authors may upload a highlighted marked-up version of their revised manuscript as a supplementary file in order to aid the Editors and reviewers. This is mandatory in Journal of General Virology.

10.1.3 Tables

  • Tables must not be supplied as image files (TIFF, PDF, PowerPoint); files containing tables prepared as images (whether provided separately or pasted into a Word file) will be returned to the author and this may delay publication. Tables should be prepared using your software's table functions, with individual entries in individual table cells. They must not be supplied as tab- or space-separated text or as multiple entries separated by line breaks in single table cells. Tables prepared in Microsoft Excel can be accepted but are not desirable. Tables must be in an editable format.

10.1.4 Line figures

  • Line figures should be produced as vector rather than bitmap (raster) images. Acceptable formats are PDF, EPS, CorelDRAW (.cdr; version 15 or earlier), Adobe Illustrator (.ai), Microsoft Excel (.xls), Microsoft Word and Microsoft PowerPoint. Fonts must be embedded for figures supplied as PDF or EPS. TIFF and other bitmap formats are not recommended for line figures; if their use cannot be avoided, the resolution should be at least 600 d.p.i.
  • Charts prepared in Microsoft Excel should be supplied in Excel format where possible. If they are copied and pasted into another Microsoft application, use Paste Special and select 'Picture (Enhanced Metafile)'.

10.1.5 Halftone figures (photographs)

  • The preferred format for halftones (i.e. photographic images) is TIFF, but PDF, EPS and JPG/JPEG are also acceptable. If image files are pasted into Word, PowerPoint, Photoshop, etc., in order to add lettering or other annotation or to combine line and halftone images, the original unlabelled halftone images should also be supplied.
  • A final print resolution of 300 d.p.i. or more is recommended; i.e. an image intended to fit in a single column of the journal should be around 1000 pixels wide and an image intended to fit across two columns should be around 2000 pixels wide. Colour images should use CMYK colour (which can be reproduced in print) rather than RGB (which cannot be reproduced faithfully using four-colour printing) (this setting can be accessed in Adobe Photoshop via Image:Mode:CMYK Color, for example). For some colour images, such as fluorescence micrographs, it may be useful to submit an RGB version of the image to be mounted online as supplementary material.

10.1.6 Scanning images

  • If images must be scanned, a resolution of 300 d.p.i. is usually sufficient for same-size reproduction of halftone (photographic) images without text, whereas 600 or 1200 d.p.i. should be used for figures containing lines and/or text. The scanned image should be cropped to remove as much white space as possible and supplied in TIFF format.

10.1.7 Equations

  • Equations that cannot be represented using the keyboard can be prepared using the Word equation editor (in versions up to Word 2003) or MathType. Word 2007/2010 users should not use the default equation editor to prepare equations as it is not compatible with any other current software; equations in Word 2007/2010 should be prepared using the MathType equation editor or the 'legacy' equation editor included as part of Word (i.e. a Microsoft Equation 3.0 object, accessible from 'Insert Object' on the 'Insert' ribbon).

10.1.8 Supplementary material

  • A combined PDF of all supplementary material.

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11. Author forms

Authors are unable to complete the submission of their revised paper until the relevant forms have been uploaded. All forms can be found here.

11.1 Licence to Publish form/Copyright form

All revised papers must be accompanied by a signed Licence to Publish or Copyright form. Please visit the Editorial policies page for information on the specific form required for your paper.

11.2 Change of Authorship form

If the order of authors has changed since submission, or if any authors have been removed or added, all authors will need to sign a Change of Authorship form, which must be uploaded with the revised paper.

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12. Post-acceptance

12.1 Author Accepted Papers

The Accepted Paper (or post-print) is the accepted version of the author's manuscript, which is published online within 3 days of acceptance. It may include modifications to the paper based on referees' suggestions before it has undergone production processes including copy editing, typesetting and proof correction. As a result, these processes may lead to differences between the accepted version of the manuscript and the final, published Version of Record. Once the Version of Record is ready for publication, it replaces the Accepted Paper version.

Each Accepted Paper is citable using its assigned Digital Object Identifier (DOI) and will be deposited on PubMed, with the version of record replacing it when published.

Unless the authors inform the Editorial Office staff to the contrary, it will be assumed that they agree to their paper being published in this way. Please note that the PDF used for peer review, and the paper title, subject category and author details that authors have entered into the online submission site, will be used.

For further information on Accepted Papers, please see our Post-print policy.

12.2 Proof corrections

Proofs are sent by email as a PDF attachment to the email address supplied for the corresponding author. It is the authors' responsibility to inform the Editorial Office of any changes to this email address.

Only typographical and absolutely essential factual changes may be made at this stage.

12.3 Reprints

For information on our reprints policy, please click here.

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