f Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: biphasic magnesium and time dependence of the transcription of the mgtA and mgtCB loci
- Authors: Tao Tao†, Paul F. Grulich, Lisa M. Kucharski, Ronald L. Smith‡, Michael E. Maguire
- Author for correspondence: Michael E. Maguire. Tel: +1 216 368 6186. Fax: +1 216 368 3395.
- Microbiology, March 1998 144: 655-664, doi: 10.1099/00221287-144-3-655
- Subject: Physiology And Growth
- Published Online:
Salmonella typhimurium has three distinct Mg2+ transport systems, the constitutive high-capacity CorA transporter and two P-type ATPases, MgtA and MgtB, whose transcription is repressed by normal concentrations of Mg2+ in the growth medium. The latter Mg2+-transporting ATPase is part of a two-gene operon, mgtCB, with mgtC encoding a 23 kDa protein of unknown function. Transcriptional regulation using fusions of the promoter regions of mgtA and mgtCB to luxAB showed a biphasic time and Mg2+ concentration dependence. Between 1 and 6 h after transfer to nitrogen minimal medium containing defined concentrations of Mg2+, transcription increased about 200-fold for mgtCB and up to 400-fold for mgtA, each with a half-maximal dependence on Mg2+ of 0.5 mM. Continued incubation revealed a second phase of increased transcription, up to 2000-fold for mgtCB and up to 10000-fold for mgtA. This secondary increase occurred between 6 and 9 h after transfer to defined medium for mgtCB but between 12 and 24 h for mgtA and had a distinct half-maximal dependence for Mg2+ of 0.01 mM. A concomitant increase of at least 1000-fold in uptake of cation was seen between 8 and 24 h incubation with either system, showing that the transcriptional increase was followed by functional incorporation of large amounts of the newly synthesized transporter into the membrane. Regulation of transcription by Mg2+ was not dependent on a functional stationary-phase sigma factor encoded by rpoS, but it was dependent on the presence of a functional phoPQ two-component regulatory system. Whereas mgtCB was completely dependent on regulation via phoPQ, the secondary Sate Mg2+-dependent phase of mgtA transcription was still evident in strains carrying a mutation in either phoP or phoQ, albeit substantially diminished. Several divalent cations blocked the early phase of the increase in transcription elicited by the decrease in Mg2+ concentration, including cations that inhibit Mg2+ uptake (Co2+, Ni2+ and Mn2+) and those which do not (Ca2+ and Zn2+). In contrast, the second later phase of the transcriptional increase was not well blocked by any cation except those which inhibit uptake. Overall, the data suggest that at least two distinct mechanisms for transcriptional regulation of the mgtA and mgtCB loci exist.
Present address: Department of Biology, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019, USA.
Present address: Laboratory of Infectious Disease, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.
- Keyword(s): magnesium transport, phoPQ two-component system, magnesium regulation, Salmonella typhimurium
© Society for General Mcrobiology 1998 | Published by the Microbiology Society
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