Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic fungus that continuously disseminates spores (conidia) into the environment. It is also the most common and opportunistic aerial fungal pathogen, causing allergic and chronic lung pathologies including the fatal invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. The pathobiology of aspergillosis is complex and depends on the competence of the host immune system. Moreover, A. fumigatus has become a model to study unique features of fungi. This includes the fungal cell wall, which not only acts as a rigid skeleton for protection against hostile environments but also plays significant roles during infection by manipulating the host immune response.